欧洲新闻 - 鸽论

优秀赛鸽眼栉膜研究——英文版

发表时间:2012-09-26 16:36:20   浏览数:35802   转到我空间  分享到随写  分享到鸽友社区
英文版—优秀赛鸽眼栉膜研究          作者:冯里欧

THE RESEARCH ON
PECTEN OCULI OF ACE PIGEONS
(Author: Leo Feng)

  Any sort of theory begins with an assumption.  It is only through numerous repeated verifications could a correct conclusion be reached.


  Through the apprenticeship with Mr. Hongquan Sun, a master of pigeon eye certification in China, and my over five years of research during which I have visited nearly 100 breeding lofts in Belgium and the Netherlands, and observed 2,307 racing pigeons, I believe that all ace breeders and racing pigeons exhibit unique characteristics in their pecten oculi (retina).  As such, I have written this thesis to provide some factual information.  The purpose of its conclusions is to draw from others more valuable ideas.  Racing pigeon breeding and certification will invariably involve the understanding of the families and characteristics of these pigeons i.e. their homing ability, speed, distance and agility.  Adhering strictly to a single breeding and certification method may induce errors.


  Method:Adjust the refraction wheel on the ophthalmoscope to the 20 mark.  Use one hand to hold the pigeon tight while keeping it still as much as possible, with its tail up and head down at a 45° angle.  Use the other hand to keep the pigeon head stable so that the distance between the pigeon eye and the ophthalmoscope is about 3 to 4 cm.  Then use the hand holding the pigeon head to adjust the angle and the distance from the head to ensure the light from the ophthalmoscope can reach inside the eye through the pupil so that you can see the retina and the external characteristics of the pecten oculi.


  A.Pecten Oculi Lamella (See Diagram 2)

  1. Golden Lamella –The entire body is orange yellow in colour, sometimes ochre, usually with shiny lines.  This is found in crossbreds produced from high quality purebreds or inbreds, mostly potential racing pigeons and ace breeds (see Diagram 3).


  Explanations:Golden Lamella is of the top class.  The comb leaves and comb stems are regarded as two separate levels, with the comb ridges being the third level.  The comb stem features a jagged edge, pressing onto the orderly arranged comb leaves.  The orange (beige) lamella is clear and bright, mostly found in Golden Breeders.  It can improve the quality of the racing pigeons, especially their flight endurance.  Ochre and dark yellow ones are relatively dull in colour, and some may not be even in tone, displaying gradual changes from dark to light or dull to shiny.  Irrespective of its tone, the entire lamella is of one single colour.  It appears to be scattered with blurry golden dusts and spots, with comparatively more of its comb leaves scarlet in colour.


  2. Silver Lamella –Its entire body is bluish grey in colour, with a large area of exposed optic nerves.  Those with white frost on the comb leaves are named “Christmas Trees”.  Pigeons with such feature are all quality breeds, mostly are top class inbreds (see Diagram 4).


  Explanations:In most cases, comb leaves and comb stems do not appear in the same colour.  They have different colours but with frosted surface.  Some look blurry with shiny lines and ridges.


  3. Bronze Lamella –Its colour is an assortment of different shades of brown, mostly found in crossbreds from better quality performance pigeons (see Diagram 5).


  Explanations:The lamella features shiny lines.  Since it is not of the homozygous genotype, its DNA chain is complicated and is of less breeding value than the Golden and Silver Lamellae.  Pairing requires more techniques and experiences.


  4. Iron Lamella – The entire body is dark grey in colour with varying degrees of shades, not much variation though (see Diagram 6).


  Explanations:Both inbreds and crossbreds could feature this type of colour, but mostly are of mixed lineages.  They demonstrate high flight speed during sunny days and comparatively high agility, but may individually display some form. of nervousness.


  Conclusions:
  1. Lamella colour is a correlated indicator of the quality of the racing pigeons.
  2. Lamella colour is of a single tone – purebreds, ace quality.
  3. Lamella exhibits clarity and brightness – original ecology, healthy.
  4. Lamella is slender in shape – high speed.
  5. Lamella is short and broad in shape – stable, average speed.
  6. Lamella is convex or partially convex in shape – heredity is comparatively more effective.
  7. Frequent vibration of the entire pecten oculi – energetic, agile.

  B.Comb Vein
  Comb veins are exposed cranial nerves.  Pigeons with silvery white or yellow comb veins are of excellent quality.  When far away from home, their reactions towards earth magnetism, atmospheric odour, sunray, geography and landmark are more stable and therefore more accurate in their orientation (see Diagrams 7 & 8).

  1. Ridges can appear anywhere along the centre line of the lamella and above it, which can take the form. of spots or lines.  Their length, width, thickness and colours are different, some extend the entire length, others may just be fragments in the head, the middle or the tail section.  There is also one type of ridges that are raised much higher above the surface.

  2. Lines can appear anywhere on the lamella, either white, greyish white or light yellow in colour.
  3. Dusts, like starlets, can appear anywhere on the comb leaves; quantity varies and mostly found in comb leaves.
  4. Spots are like shiny fragments sprinkled on the lamella; quantity varies and colour is mainly golden yellow or white.
  5. Frosting is the exposure of optic nerves, resembling a layer of frost on the lamella and comb leaves; quantity varies without clear boundaries, most of them look like fog.


  Conclusions:

  1. The presence of ridges, lines, dusts, spots and frost indicates the quality of the racing pigeons; presence is better than absence, clarity is better than blurriness, and more is better than less.
  2. Frost or fog appearing in the lamella head is good for breeding; and in the tail, excellent for racing.
  3. Ideally, these should appear in the tail because this is the secret to winning races.
  4. Dusts and spots are a (diminutive) form. of frost, yet their value and quality are not as good.

  C.Comb Leaf
  1. A high quality comb leaf is like a flower, pink and scattered with shiny spots.  The leaf is thick and where it joins the lamella is strong and tight.
  2. The comb leaf is pointed (jagged) in shape with a tapering end which is the feature of fast potential racing pigeons; high density mostly indicates good mid-range racing pigeons.
  3. Pigeons with comb leaves that are round in shape are of the long range category.
  4. Long and round comb leaves demonstrate great endurance in potential racing pigeons.


  Conclusions, attributes for excellence and speediness:

  1. Slender, basically of the same width from top to bottom.
  2. The pecten oculi lamella facing the comb leaf transitional area is in a jagged shape like a ladder.
  3. When the comb vein extends on the lamella, its length, width, thickness, brightness or intensity appears bluish grey.
  4. Comb leaves that are thick with shiny pastel spots like flowers are the best.
  5. The quantity of comb leaves can roughly determine the suitable range of a racing pigeon; the higher the quantity of comb leaves, the longer the range.

  D.Comb Head
  Located at the lower part of the pecten oculi (at the corner), this part of the lamella is usually flat and wide.  The comb leaves are relatively thick and well developed.  If positive attributes such as frost, lines or dusts are present in the lamella or on the comb leaves, the breeding ability will be strong.  This is called the breeding area.

  E.Comb Tail
  Discrepancies exist between excellence and mediocrity.  Its detailed and overall shape reflects the quality of the racing pigeons i.e. their inherited homing ability, speed, distance and agility.  Adjust the refraction wheel on the ophthalmoscope to the black mark of 5 or 6 for observation.
  1. The tail is located at the upper part of the pecten oculi (posterior cerebral area), occupying approximately one-sixth of the entire pecten oculi.   This part of the lamella is usually narrower, some shrunken to tiny pointed shape with comb leaves retracted accordingly.  There are great variations in its appearance, but it provides primarily the information on the quality of the racing pigeons.
  2. If the comb leaves in the comb tail exhibit frosting, this pigeon is of excellent breed.
  3. At the tapering end of the comb tail, the densely populated little black dots and minuscule silky hair appearing on the tiny dark grey stems are the optic nerves.  As for optic nerves (those densely populated little black dots and minuscule silky hair), dense is better than scarce, and bright peripheral colour is better than dull.  If the joints between comb leaves are also dense with dots, the quality is even higher.

  4. At the tapering end of the comb tail, the stem cannot be askew and irregular or curved at the top, otherwise this indicates inferiority in the quality and needs to be eliminated.  See the diagram below.


  5. Shaped like the head of a matchstick, this is of the top class breeder and racing pigeons.  See the diagram below.

  6. Shaped like a metal brush, this is more outstanding in mid-range breeding than taking part in races.  See the diagram below.

  7. Shaped like branches, this indicates inconsistencies in racing results; more suitable for breeding if it features golden / silver lines.  See the diagram below.

  8. Shaped like a tower, this indicates consistency in mid-range racing, characteristic of good racing pigeons and breeders.  See the diagram below.

  9. Shaped like a tapered rope, this is the characteristic of long range racing pigeons.  See the diagram below.

  F.Notes for Pairing
  1. To reproduce offsprings of the same quality, try to pair as far as possible pigeons with similar pecten oculi, close lamella shape and symmetrical eyes.
  2. One of the pair is an all-round ace while the other is a partly top class ace.  The purpose is to reproduce offsprings with certain aspect strengthened or even exceeding the parents e.g. to possess the ability of withstanding adverse weather.  Try to pair a brown lamella with a yellowish one, or crossbreed reddish ones.
  3. To boost the flight speed, pair one with shiny lines with another one with long shiny lines.
  4. Pair one with jagged comb leaves with ladder comb leaves; make sure to find ones with orderly arrangements for pairing.
  5. Heredity is the most effective for those with white frost and long shiny lines which can be paired with any types.  Offsprings whose pecten oculi are not achieving the standard of 80% or are too far from expectations should be broken up as early as possible and re-paired.



更新时间:2012-09-26 16:13:00
评论列表
用户名: 密码:     立即注册


    2017-05-24 20:55:20
明白了很多疑问 也验证了很多道理 在今年春季公棚 300公里指定鸽200元十一取一的7名500元十一取一季军 400公里 500元六把抓的季军 200元 十一取一的6名 500公里决赛 500元 十一取一 的 24名 感谢您写的 文章 让我学习 并成长让我感慨万分 在这里谢谢了 同时我也还有许多疑问希望能和您一起探讨 希望老师您看到后能及时与我联系 下面是我的联系方式
    2017-05-24 20:53:20
您好,冯里欧老师 在前几年前在网上就看到过您写的关于栉膜的文章 当时没当回事 在去年 二月份无意间再次看到 您写的关于信鸽眼底栉膜的报告,决定大胆试一试,抱着试试看的态度,拿起了镜子决定一探究竟, 通过一年半的时间 按照着您写的研究报告和我本人的摸索 看了 伙计家经常飞好的成绩鸽父母 同时有幸 看完了在我们山东本地非常有名的公棚决赛冠军至500名有了很大的收获 但也发现了很多疑问,带着这 些疑问 我又看了四五家本地周边年年在公棚飞的都很好的鸽友 又有很大的收获,通过时间的积累 搞明
    2012-10-05 16:16:29
《信鸽眼睛科学研究所》借助世界上最神秘的鸽眼聚宝盆,即以哈贝尼斯(原源种)的赛鸽眼睛为基础,再次向国内外的鸽友,表示真挚的呼唤,愿您在赛鸽领域,追寻对鸽眼理论研究的执着,争取自己的那份快乐。
    2012-10-04 22:54:07
英文不懂
    2012-09-29 14:04:51
i can not say anything for you ! how many actors speak English in this group .so i can not catch with your motives thanks a lot . 在这个群里我们只用汉语交流, 英语谁不会啊、、 嘿嘿!!
    2012-09-28 20:43:42
我国鸽界缺乏学术研究气氛、缺乏潜心研究信鸽之人!
    2012-09-28 17:10:14
亲爱的鸽友:大家好!非常感谢浏览我的讨论文, 在这里您可以了解到赛鸽,眼底栉膜(视网膜)存在其特有的品质特征。 借用这个平台,把我的文章展示给您,鄙人感到非常荣幸和骄傲!目前国内外关于对鸽眼栉膜的学术研究报告,交流的文章不多。造成运用此理论的人,可能在之前的操作上出现过偏差,而得不到很快的论证,这是一件非常遗憾的事情。我提议在荷兰成立一个国际化的《信鸽眼睛科学研究所》。希望国内外的有志之士支持参加,其目的是通过学术研究,作出赛鸽、种鸽可操作的计量标准,来指导引种过程和信鸽运动。相信《信鸽眼睛科学研究所》对广大鸽友具有较高的使用价值。如果能给您带来快乐和信念的话,填好您的邮箱地址,和您“赛鸽栉膜研究的文章”与我联系fenn_568@hotmail.com我会把关于研究所的消息及时地发到您的邮箱里!
    2012-09-28 15:38:06
翻译如下:5,霜,视神经外露的现象,在板面和栉叶的表面附着一层霜,或淡或浓,没有明显的边界限制,大多看起来像雾。 结论: 1,板面出现脊、线、星、点、霜等现象,是赛鸽的品质,有比没有的好,明显比模糊的好,多比少好。 2,霜或雾出现在栉板面头部育种好,出现板面尾部竞翔好。 3,最理想的还是出现在尾部,因为这是竞翔赢赛的机密。 4,星、点是霜现象(缩小)的表现,其使用价值品质不如霜。 三,栉 叶 1,高级的栉叶表面像花一样,粉红色彩,布满了闪光亮点,叶片肥厚,与栉板连接处紧密结实。 2,尖(锯齿)形栉叶,未端尖状,属快速型准赛鸽,密者多为中程好赛鸽。3,圆形栉叶外形呈长条状,属远距离。 4,长圆形栉叶,外形呈长圆状,属耐力型准赛鸽。结论,优秀快速的特征: 1、栉膜板适中,但宽度上下基本一样。 2、栉膜板面上的栉叶,尖圆锯齿状。 3、栉脉线长、宽、厚、亮、或系干老黄金板。4、栉叶饱满且有粉色亮斑点,像花模样的最好。 5,根据栉叶的数量,大致判断赛鸽的适飞距离,栉叶数量越多,飞距离越远。四,栉头 位于栉膜下部(嘴角方),这部分的栉板一般比较宽平,栉叶也相对发达肥厚,如果板面或栉叶上有霜、线、星等品质好,其育种能力强,称为育种区域。 五,栉尾     优秀与平庸存在着差异。细节及整体形状反映了,赛鸽品质即归巢,速度、距离、敏锐的遗传. 眼底镜曲光度调节到黑色刻度5或者6档,进行观察。 1,尾位于栉膜上部(脑后方),占整个栉膜的大约六分之一,这部分的栉板一般比较窄,有的收缩成细尖状,栉叶也随之收缩,外形变化大,集中反映着赛鸽品质的信息。 2,栉尾的栉叶如出现挂霜现象,是顶级好种鸽。 3,栉尾尖处,灰黑色细小的筋干上布满了密密麻麻的小黑点和极其细微的丝毛,即视神经。视神经(密密麻麻的小黑点和极其细微的丝毛)密集的比稀疏的好,周边颜色明亮的比暗淡的好。如栉叶与栉叶连接处都布满了麻点时,其品质更好。配对注意事项1,尽量以栉膜类形相似的配对,板形接近,左右眼对称,以期待复制出品质相同的后代。 2,有一方是全面优秀的与另一方是局部顶级优秀的配对,目的要使后代在某一方面强化或超越父母,例如:要抗恶劣天气,由棕板配偏浅黄的,或偏红的相互配。 3,要加快速度时,要金板的,与带亮长线的相配。4,栉叶锯齿形状,注意找排列整齐有序的互配。 5,挂白霜带亮长线的遗传最好,可任意
    2012-09-28 15:34:28
翻译如下: 一,栉膜板。(见图2)1,金板,通体颜色呈橙黄色,也有酱黄,很多时候有发亮的线,纯系高质的杂交鸽或者内交鸽,大多是准赛鸽和优秀种鸽。(见图3) 说明:金板为顶级,栉叶和栉干分为两层,有脊的为三层。栉干的边缘呈锯齿状,压在下面的栉叶上,大多排列整齐。橙(杏)黄色的板面清晰明亮,大多数是黄金种鸽,能改良赛鸽的品质,特别是耐翔方面。酱黄和深黄色的比较暗,也有前后不一致的,由深变浅由暗变亮丽的。不管颜色深与浅,板面颜色从头至尾是通体颜色,看面板,像有模糊的金粉星星点点洒在表面,其栉叶呈腥红色彩的比较多。2,银板,其通体颜色呈青灰色,有大面积视神经外露现象,在栉叶表面挂白霜的叫“圣诞树",凡有这种特征的,都是好种鸽,大多是顶级的近亲鸽。(见图4)说明:多数栉叶和栉干呈不一样颜色,叶和干颜色不同,表面都附着一层霜,有的看起来雾蒙蒙的,有发亮的线,和脊。3,铜板,其颜色呈杂棕色,有深有浅,大多是品质较好的杂交成绩鸽。(见图5)说明:栉板带亮线,因为自身不是纯合基因,DNA链条复杂,不如金板和银板作种价值高,配对择偶时需要比较高的技巧和经验。4,铁板,其通体颜色呈灰黑色,有深有浅,变化不多。(见图6)说明:近亲,杂交都有此类颜色,大都是混杂血统,晴天飞速快,较敏锐,个别有些神经质现象.结论: 1,板面的颜色呈现的是,赛鸽其品质的连锁反应。 2,板面颜色单调——血统纯正、品质则优良。3,板面清晰明亮——原生态,健康。 4,板形窄、长——(像黄的牛脊梁背)定向好、速度也会快;有亮线或霜的,是顶级种鸽、也是好赛鸽。 5,板形宽、短——稳定、速度一般。 6,板面凸起或局部凸起——遗传比较到位。 7,栉膜整体抖动频繁——活力大、敏锐。 二,栉脉栉脉线是脑神经外露,有银白或者黄色栉脉线的鸽子品质精良,在远离巢穴时对地磁、空气气味、太阳光照、地形地物的反映比较执着,定向准确性要好得多。(见图7、8)    1,脊,在板面中线任何位置凸起,高出板面,或点或条,其长短、宽窄、粗细、色泽不同,有全通的,有只在头部、中部或尾部不是连贯的,也有一种高出平面很多的。 2,线,出现在栉板的任何位置,颜色有白、灰白、浅黄。3,星,出现在栉叶的任何地方,或多或少,类似星星,多数出现在栉叶上。 4,点,像是散落在板面上一些发光的碎片,或多或少,颜色以金黄色,和白色为主。5,霜,视神经外露的现象,在板面